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La Reine Diamond La Rose Pink Diamond Lasarev DiamondLaser Gem lax diamond laxey diamonds PDF Print E-mail
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Friday, 21 September 2007

La Reine diamond. See queen of bel

(HUM DIAMOND.

Larkin's Flat. One of the early allu­vial diamond diggings on the Vaal River, Republic of South africa. La Rose Diamond. See la rose pink DIAMOND.

La Rose Pink Diamond. A 7.07-carat flawless marquise that was cut in 1954 and shown at the opening of the Sheridan Village Shopping Center in Peoria, Illinois, in March by Marks Bros. Jewelry Store. It was valued at $40,000. Alternate name is La Rose Diamond.

Lasarev Diamond. See orloff dia­mond.

laser. Acronym for Light Amplifica­tion by Stimulated Emission of Radia­tion. Lasers produce a special kind of light that is monochromatic, cohe­rent, and collimated. Laser systems have been used to enhance the clar­ity grade of Diamonds by providing passages to dark inclusions and to act as conduits for bleaching agents. See laser drilling.

laser drilling. Technique of enhanc­ing the clarity of a diamond by pro­viding access for bleaching agents to inclusions. Intense heat is generated by a focused laser beam which actu­ally burns into the diamond to or through an inclusion. Sometimes drilling a tiny hole (less than 5/ 1000ths of an inch in diameter) into a flaw may make it whiten and dis­appear. Usually, a special bleaching or leaching agent such as hydrofluoric acid is needed to leach out the dark inclusion. See laser.

Laser Gem. Trade name for a com­posite imitation (doublet) diamond simulant consisting of a synthetic spinel top and a strontium titanate bottom.

lasque. See bevel cut.

lasque diamonds. Very thin tabular diamonds which in the past were used by Indian cutters to glaze mini­ature paintings and hence were call­ed portrait stones or lasques.

Last Hope. A minor alluvial diamond deposit in the Barkly West area, Cape Province, Republic of South Af­rica. The output from this mine in one recent year amounted to less than 300 carats.

lax diamond. A seldom-used term for a diamond with little fire and bril­liancy.

laxey diamonds. Trade term for very shallow brilliant-cut diamonds.

lead glass. Glass containing a high percentage of lead. The addition of

Last Updated ( Thursday, 01 November 2007 )
 
La Belle Helene Diamond Lace La Favorite Diamond Lake George diamond lapidary PDF Print E-mail
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Friday, 21 September 2007

La Belle Helene diamond. An ex­ceptionally fine 160-carat alluvial diamond. Found on the Orange River, Republic of South africa in 1951. Bought by Romi Goldmuntz of Antwerp for £80,000 and named for his wife. Cut in the U.S. into three stones: matching pear shapes of 30.28 and 29.71 carats and a 10.50-carat marquise. All were sold pri­vately.

Lace (or Crown) Mine. A diamond mine of minor importance located about 100 miles south of Johannes­burg in the Kroonstad district, Orange Free State, Republic of South Africa.

La Favorite Diamond. A top-quality 50.28-carat stone. Exhibited at Chi­cago World's Fair in 1934, when it was owned by a Persian and val­ued at $1,000,000. Present location unknown.

Lake George diamond. Same as Her­kimer diamond.

lambreu. A Brazilian term for irregu­lar diamond fragments.

Landak River. A source of early diamond deposits on the Island of

Kalimantan, formerly called Borneo.

See KALIMANTAN.

lap. A flat, horizontal, diamond-dust-impregnated cast-iron wheel, 12 to 18 inches in diameter, that re­volves about a vertical shaft. It is used for grindingpolishing facets on Diamonds. Another name is scaife (also spelled skeif or skaif). Diamond-charged laps, often made of other materials, are also used for industrial purposes and for fashion­ing colored stones. (See photo.) and

lapidary (or lapidist). A cutter, grind­er and polisher of colored stones. In the trade a lapidary is not necessarily an engraver of gems, this being con­sidered a specialized art. A cutter and polisher of diamonds is classed as a diamond cutter, as distinguished from a gem cutter, or lapidary.

lapper. See blocker.

lapping. See blocking.

La Reine des Beiges Diamond. A

50-carat diamond. Thought to have been owned by the Queen of Bel-


gium in the latter part of nineteenth century. Existence not verified; how­ever, it is believed to be an alternate name for the Queen of Belgium Dia­mond.

 
kraal Krandall Diamond Kromellenboog. Kruger Diamond PDF Print E-mail
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Friday, 21 September 2007

kraal. A South African (Boer) word for a hut or group of huts for housing native diamond miners.

Krandall Diamond. A 40-carat gold­en yellow cushion-cut diamond own­ed by Sidney Krandall, a Detroit jew­eler. Reported to have been in the collection of Catherine the Great. It has an unusual cut of 114 facets of which 56 are on the girdle. The Krandall was originally bought by Mr. Krandall's father about 1934 from the London dealer, Oyster Ovid.

Kromellenboog. A minor alluvial diamond deposit in the Christiana area, Transvaal Province, Republic of South africa. Production from this digging is miniscule.


Kruger Diamond. A South African statesman and one-time president of the Transvaal, Stephanus Johannes Paulus (Paul) Kruger (1825-1904), was honored when he was presented with a 200-carat alluvial diamond that was given his name. The stone is said to have changed hands fre­quently and to have belonged suc­cessively to several powerful native chiefs. After its last chief-owner had been taken captive, Kruger freed him. In gratitude, the chief sent the diamond to his benefactor as a gift.


The whereabouts of this stone is not known today.

Krupp Diamond. The 33.19-carat, emerald-cut Krupp Diamond was once part of the estate of Vera Krupp, ex-wife of the German munition maker and industrialist. In 1968, it was sold at auction by Parke-Bernet for $305,000 to Richard Burton for his wife, Elizabeth Taylor.

Kt. An abbreviation for karat.

Kurupung River. A river in Guyana along which are located alluvial diamond deposits.

Last Updated ( Friday, 05 October 2007 )
 
Kohlville Diamond Kollur Diamond Koppiesfontein mine Koppiesvlei Kott-Dar-EI-Kouti PDF Print E-mail
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Friday, 21 September 2007

Kohlville diamond. See theresa

DIAMOND.

Kollur Diamond. A 63-carat di­amond that is said to have been bought by Tavernier in 1653 at In­dia's Kollur Mines. Additional details lacking.

Kollur Mines. A group of old diamond mines in the Golconda district, India. The famous Orloff Diamond is thought to have been found in this region. See golconda,

INDIA, HYDERABAD.

Komsomolsky Diamond. A large named rough diamond crystal, weight unknown, in the Russian Diamond Fund, Moscow.

Kono District. An important di­amond-producing region in Sierra Leone, africa. See sierra leone.z

kopje (kop"-ee). A South African word of Dutch origin meaning hil­lock. Some diamond pipes were marked by small elevations above the surrounding terrain; such mounds were known locally as kopjes. The term is now used to mean a knot on the surface of a diamond. See knot.

kopje walloper. A slang term that was used to describe a diamond dealer or a buyer of rough Diamonds in the early days of the South African diamond fields.

Koppiesfontein mine. A small di­amond pipe mine in the Jagersfon-tein area, Orange Free State, Repub­lic of South Africa.


Koppiesvlei. A minor alluvial dia­mond deposit in the Schweizer Ren-eke area, Transvaal Province, Repub­lic of South Africa. This deposit contributes very little to total South African production. Koslow I & II. These two diamonds were reportedly cut from a rough of unknown size. The Koslow I was sold after cutting and no further in­formation is known about it. The Koslow II was reported to be "of the finest quality, in the best proportions of a pear cut," and weighed 20 carats. It was owned in 1961 by the firm of the late Nat Koslow of New York City. No other information is available.

Kott-Dar-EI-Kouti. Diamond-mining areas along the Kotto River in the Central African Republic.

Koyle's Kopje (kop"-ee). A small diamond pipe mine in the Kimberley area, Cape Province, Republic of South Africa.

 
POLYSYNTHETIC TWINNING Koh-i-Noor Diamond. PDF Print E-mail
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Friday, 21 September 2007

knot lines. A term used by some cut­ters for the twinning lines on or within a diamond. See twinning lines,

POLYSYNTHETIC TWINNING, REPEATED TWINNING,

Koffiefontein Mine (kof'-ee-fon-tane"). The third largest diamond pipe mine in the Republic of South africa and one of the earliest dis­coveries in the Orange Free State. Formerly an important producer, it was operated until 1931. The mine was reopened after 40 years in Au­gust 1971 to operate as an open cast mine for 10 years, after which time underground mining will commence. It is located between the Kimberley and Jagersfontein Mines.

Koh-i-Noor Diamond. The known facts about the Koh-i-Noor date back to the year 1304, when it was owned by the rajah of the huge territory in India known as Malwa, which today is divided into Indore, Ghopal and Gwalior. Two centuries later, it fell into the hands of Sultan Baber, the first of the Mogul emperors. Through his son, it passed down the line to all the great Moguls, including Shah Jehan, who built the Taj Mahal as a memorial for his beloved Queen, Mumtaz. During this period, there


was a belief that "he who owns the Koh-i-Noor rules the world." In 1739, Persia's Nadir Shah invaded India, captured Delhi and, after a systematic pillage of the city, seized the diamond. According to one ac­count, the stone was one of the eyes in the peacock in the Peacock Throne that Shah Jehan began and Aurangzeb, his son, completed and that Nadir Shah carried off, thus gaining possession of the jewel. Another story is that the conquered Mogul ruler, Mohammed Shah, had hidden it inside his turban, which he never removed. When Nadir Shah discovered this, he took advantage of an Oriental custom and invited his victim to a feast, suggesting that they exchange turbans. The vanquished ruler dared not refuse and Nadir Shah, retiring with the turban, unroll­ed its yards of silk and released the magnificent gem, which fell to the floor. It is then that he is supposed to have cried, "Koh-i-Noor!" (meaning "mountain of light"); thus the stone was named. The Koh-i-Noor went back to Persia with Nadir Shah but was again in India in the jewel chamber of Lahore, capital of the Punjab, when that state was annexed to the British Empire. In 1849, the stone was taken by the East India Co. of England as partial indemnity after the Sikh Wars in the Punjab. It was presented to Queen Victoria in 1850 at a great reception in St. James Palace, to mark the two hundred fif­tieth anniversary of the founding of the East India Co. by Queen Elizabeth I. When displayed at the Crystal Palace Exposition in London in 1851, viewers were disappointed that it did not exhibit more fire; therefore, Victoria decided to have it recut. A Mr. Voorsanger, the ablest diamond cutter of Amsterdam's famed Coster plant, came to London for this. A four-horsepower steam engine was set up in the workshop of the Crown Jewelers, to drive the wheel. Prince Albert placed the stone on the mill and the Duke of Wellington started the wheel. The cutting required 38 days, which was considered a miracle, since the Re­gent had required two years to cut. The operation cost $40,000, and the Koh-i-Noor was reduced from its former 186-carat old-Indian cut to a 108.93-carat oval brilliant. Be­fore cutting, it had been valued at $700,000. Queen Victoria, by the wish of her subjects, wore the big diamond in a brooch; this perhaps gave rise to the superstition that only queens, not kings, could wear it safely. Victoria willed it to her daughter-in-law, Queen Alexandra, who wore it at her coronation. A new crown was made for the late Queen Mary in 1911, with the Koh-i-Noor as the central ornament. In 1937, it was transferred to the Queen Mother's Crown. Without the royal arches, the Queen Mother continues to wear the circlet of the Crown,

 
Klipfontein Klippan GIRDLE THICKNESS PDF Print E-mail
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Friday, 21 September 2007

Klipfontein. A small alluvial di­amond deposit in the Bloemhof area, Transvaal Province, Republic of South africa. Production for one re­cent year was approximately 350 carats.

Klipkuil. A minor alluvial diamond deposit in the Lichtenburg area, Transvaal Province, Republic of South Africa. Approximately 600 carats were recovered in one recent year.

Klippan. A minor alluvial diamond deposit in the Lichtenburg area, Transvaal Province, Republic of South Africa. The yearly production from this mine is very small.

knife-edge girdle. A girdle of a diamond that is so thin that it can be likened to the edge of a sharp knife. Since such a girdle is easily chipped,


a well cut girdle has an appreciable thickness to withstand damage. See

GIRDLE THICKNESS, LUMPY GIRDLE.

Knoop Indentation Hardness Test. A

technique for measuring the hard­ness of metals, alloys and other materials. The hardness is deter­mined by pressing a pyramid-shaped diamond into the material to be tested and computing the area of the indentation in relation to the load on the diamond point.See mohs scale.

knot. (1) A term applied to an in-;luded crystal of diamond that is ariented differently from the host crystal and is encountered during the fashioning process. Knots stand out

 
Kleinzee Mine Klipdrift Klipfontein knife-edge girdle PDF Print E-mail
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Friday, 21 September 2007

Kleinzee Mine. An alluvial diamond mine in Namaqualand, formerly op­erated by De Beers Consolidated Mines, Ltd. This deposit is no longer producing. See namaqualand.


Klipbankfontein. A minor alluvial diamond deposit in the Lichtenburg area, Transvaal Province, Republic of South africa. Production for one re­cent year was under 100 carats.

Klipdam. A minor alluvial diamond deposit in the Barkly West area, Cape Province, Republic of South Af­rica. The 220-carat Burgess Diamond was found at Klipdam in 1907.

Klipdrift. One of the early alluvial diamond diggings on the Vaal River, Cape Province, Republic of South Af­rica, and the site of the first diamond discoveries in 1869. In this area 14 mines were discovered in ensuing years. This group, about 20 to 40 miles northwest of Kimberley, is now known as the Barkly West Group. Present-day production is very low; in one recent year, for example, ap­proximately 300 carats were recov­ered.

Klipfontein. A small alluvial di­amond deposit in the Bloemhof area, Transvaal Province, Republic of South Africa. Production for one re­cent year was approximately 350 carats.

Klipkuil. A minor alluvial diamond deposit in the Lichtenburg area, Transvaal Province, Republic of South Africa. Approximately 600 carats were recovered in one recent year.

Klippan. A minor alluvial diamond deposit in the Lichtenburg area, Transvaal Province, Republic of South Africa. The yearly production from this mine is very small.

knife-edge girdle. A girdle of a diamond that is so thin that it can be likened to the edge of a sharp knife. Since such a girdle is easily chipped,


a well cut girdle has an appreciable thickness to withstand damage. See

GIRDLE THICKNESS, LUMPY GIRDLE.

Knoop Indentation Hardness Test. A

technique for measuring the hard­ness of metals, alloys and other materials. The hardness is deter­mined by pressing a pyramid-shaped diamond into the material to be tested and computing the area of the indentation in relation to the load on the diamond point.See mohs scale.

 
Kimberlite Diamond-Mining Kimberlite Gem King of Portugal Diamond Kissidougou PDF Print E-mail
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Friday, 21 September 2007

Kimberlite diamond-Mining Co.

One of the companies that was or­ganized to mine the Arkansas dia­mond deposits. See Arkansas.

Kimberlite Gem. A trade name for synthetic rutile.

King Charles I Seal Diamond. Said to be a carving of the Royal Arms of England. Weight unknown. Prior to his death in 1649, Charles I gave the stone to his son Charles II, who needed money during his exile. The latter is thought to have sold it to Tavernier, the French jeweler and traveler, who in turn, disposed of it in Persia (Iran). Present whereabouts unknown. In 1966 this diamond was not listed among the Crown Jewels of Iran.

King Cut (trademark). A rarely used modification of the standard 58-facet brilliant cut. It possesses the usual ar­rangement for a brilliant but has a twelvefold symmetry, instead of eightfold (i.e., 12 star facets, 12 bezel facets, etc.), with a total of 86 facets.


King of Portugal Diamond. See

BRAGANZA DIAMOND.

Kirsten, F. B. A De Beers employee who discovered, in 1896, that dia­monds in concentrate were non-


wettable and stuck to grease, while all the other minerals were washed over the grease. G. F. Labram, chief engineer of the company, was the first to take advantage of Kirsten's discovery. He invented a sloping table with five steps covered with grease which trapped dia­monds. A stream of water carrying concentrates was passed over the grease table; the Diamonds stuck to the grease and the other material continued over the trap.

Kissidougou. See kerouane.

Kistna Group. A name sometimes used to refer to the ancie'nt alluvial diamond deposits near the historical city of Golconda, State of Hydera­bad, India. See golconda, Hyderabad,

INDIA.

kite cut. A four-sided form of cutting, usually step cut, that resembles a child's kite in outline.


kite facets. An alternate term for the eight main bezel facets, the outlines of which resemble a kite. See bezel facets.

 
Kimberley Mine kimberlite PDF Print E-mail
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Friday, 21 September 2007

Kimberley Mine. July, 1871, is the usually accepted date for the discov­ery of Diamonds at Colesberg Kopje on the farm Vooruitzigt, Cape Pro­vince, Republic of South africa. This first discovery was originally known as De Beers New Rush and later shortened to New Rush; finally, it was named Kimberley, in honor of the then British Secretary for the Colonies. Before its closing in 1914, it produced 14,504,566 carats of diamonds (equivalent to three tons), valued at £Big Hole, is the largest man-made hole in the world. The total depth of the mine is 3610 feet. The crater itself is 1300 feet deep and the depth of the water is approximately 700 feet, rising at the rate of 12 feet per year. The dis­tance across the mine, from north to south, is 1550 feet; from east to west, 1500 feet. The perimeter is one mile and the area is 38 acres. During its period of operation, 25 million tons of earth were excavated. 47,139,842. The Kimber­ley Mine, known as the

Kimberley Mines. A term used to des­ignate a group of five diamond pipe mines in the vicinity of Kimberley, Republic of South Africa: Bultfon-tein, De Beers, Dutoitspan, Kimber­ley and Wesselton. This group of mines is often classified as the De Beers Mines, because they are all under the control of De Beers Con­solidated Mines, Ltd. Another name sometimes used for them is the Big Five.

kimberlite. The name applied to the type of mafic igneous rock (a serpen-tinized phlogopite-peridotite) that is the host rock of diamonds in all primary diamond deposits discov-
Last Updated ( Thursday, 01 November 2007 )
 
Kaokoveld Kaplan, Lazare Kapuas River PDF Print E-mail
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Friday, 21 September 2007

Kaokoveld. An area along the coast of South-West africa, extending from the border of Angola south to the concessions of diamond Mining & Utility (S.W.A.), Ltd. De Beers Con­solidated Mines, Ltd. has three con­cessions in the Kaokoveld that are being worked or prospected under the supervision of Consolidated Diamond Mines of South-West Af­rica, Ltd. See south-west africa.

Kaplan, Lazare (1883- ). Lazare Kaplan is one of the diamond indus­try's great cleavers and master cutters. Born in Russia, Kaplan was appren­ticed at his uncle's diamond cutting plant in Antwerp, at the age of 15. At 22 he became the head of his own cleaving enterprise and introduced many innovations such as using India ink on the diamond in theplanning and cutting stages. In 1914, Kaplan set up shop in New York and in 1917, established a diamond cut­ting and polishing factory in Ponce, Puerto Rico, using an assembly line method. In 1933, he was asked by Harry Winston to cut the Pohl Dia­mond a large 287-carat stone with many inclusions. This turned out so successfully that when Winston pur­chased the 726-carat jonker Dia­mond, he commissioned Kaplan to cut it. Kaplan studied the jonker for over a year and prepared a cutting plan that was totally different from that provided by European experts; he used a novel combination of saw­ing and cleaving to obtain better shapes and greater yield. Before be­ginning the cutting process, Kaplan predicted the dimensions and weights of the anticipated gems. Even though some of the stones were completely concealed in the rough diamond, his prediction was exact; the jonker Diamond was divided into 12 beautiful, flawless gems with a remarkable yield of over 51%. Kap­lan demonstrated for the first time that diamond has six secondary dodecahedral cleavages as well as four octahedral cleavages. He was the originator of a scientific grading system for Diamonds which required uniformity in "make" with grading based on color and clarity standards. At 93, he still is active as the Chair­man of the Board of Lazare Kaplan International and continues to apply his enthusiasm and skills to planning the cutting of difficult stones.

Kapuas River. A source of early diamond deposits in the Kalimantan province of Borneo, Republic of In­donesia. See INDONESIA, REPUBLIC OF.

 
kalette Kalimantan Kameelkui PDF Print E-mail
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Friday, 21 September 2007

kalette. German equivalent for the word culet.

Kalimantan. A province on the island of Borneo, Republic of Indonesia, that is a source of Diamonds. See In­donesia, REPUBLIC OF.

Kalkfontein Mine (kalk'-fon-tane").

A small diamond mine in the town of Jagersfontein, Orange Free State, Re­public of South africa.

Kameelkuil. A minor alluvial dia­mond deposit in the Schweizer Ren-eke area, Transvaal Province, Repub­lic of South Africa. Production figures for one 12-month period in a recent year showed a yield of only 173 carats.

Kamfersdam Mine (kam"-fers-dam'). A diamond mine located a few miles north of Kimberley, Cape

 
Kaalpan Kaaipiaats Kaal Valley Diamond Mine Kafferpan PDF Print E-mail
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Friday, 21 September 2007

K. An abbreviation for karat. Kaalfontein Mine (Kal'-fonn-tane").

A small diamond mine in the Orange Free State, Republic of South africa. It was discovered in 1898.

Kaalpan. An alluvial diamond dig­ging in the Bloemhof area, Transvaal Province, Republic of South Africa, the annual production of which is negligible.

Kaaipiaats. A minor alluvial diamond deposit in the Vereeniging area, Trans­vaal Province, Republic of South Af­rica. The annual yield from this dig­ging is of little consequence.

Kaal Valley Diamond Mine. A small mine located in the Orange Free State, South Africa; it is no longer being worked.

Kaapse Tijd (The Cape Period). An old Dutch phrase referring to the late 19th century, when the discovery of Diamonds in South Africa stimulated the cutting industry in Amsterdam.

Kafferpan. The name of an alluvial diamond deposit in the Bloemhof area, Transvaal Province, Republic of South Africa, the annual production of which is negligible.

Kahama pipes. Three small dia­mond-bearing kimberlite pipes about 75 miles west of Mwadui, Tanzania.

Kalahari Desert. A desert region of southwestern Africa covering about 20,000 square miles between the Orange and the Zambesi Rivers and from longitude 26°E. nearly to the At­lantic Ocean. This great, relatively infertile area lies in Botswana, a part


of the Republic of South Africa and eastern South-West Africa, and is a part of the remarkably flat huge inner tableland of South Africa. The area is covered generally with an overbur­den of red-colored soft sand. De Beers prospecting units used indi­cator minerals such as pyrope and ilmenite brought to the surface by ants and traced river bed samples upstream to locate kimberlite pipes in Botswana. The first pipe discov­ered in Botswana in 1965 was not diamond bearing. However, in 1968, De Beers located a number of new kimberlite pipes, some diamondifer-ous, in Botswana. These included the 2125AKI diamond pipe, in Orapa, which is about five times the size of the Finsch Mine in area.

 
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